Identification of polymorphisms and sequence variants in the human homologue of the mouse natural resistance-associated macrophage protein gene

Am J Hum Genet. 1995 Apr;56(4):845-53.


The most common mycobacterial disease in humans is tuberculosis, and there is evidence for genetic factors in susceptibility to tuberculosis. In the mouse, the Bcg gene controls macrophage priming for activation and is a major gene for susceptibility to infection with mycobacteria. A candidate gene for Bcg was identified by positional cloning and was designated "natural resistance-associated macrophage protein gene" (Nramp1), and the human homologue (NRAMP1) has recently been cloned. Here we report on (1) the physical mapping of NRAMP1 close to VIL in chromosome region 2q35 by PCR analysis of somatic cell hybrids and YAC cloning and (2) the identification of nine sequence variants in NRAMP1. Of the four variants in the coding region, there were two missense mutations and two silent substitutions. The missense mutations were a conservative alanine-to-valine substitution at codon 318 in exon 9 and an aspartic acid-to-asparagine substitution at codon 543 in the predicted cytoplasmic tail of the NRAMP1 protein. A microsatellite was located in the immediate 5' region of the gene, three variants were in introns, and one variant was located in the 3' UTR. The allele frequencies of each of the nine variants were determined in DNA samples of 60 Caucasians and 20 Asians. In addition, we have physically linked two highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, D2S104 and D2S173, to NRAMP1 on a 1.5-Mb YAC contig. These molecular markers will be useful to assess the role of NRAMP1 is susceptibility to tuberculosis and other macrophage-mediated diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Carrier Proteins / genetics*
  • Cation Transport Proteins*
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Genetic Variation*
  • Humans
  • Hybrid Cells
  • Immunity, Innate*
  • Iron-Binding Proteins*
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics*
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*
  • Tuberculosis / genetics*


  • Carrier Proteins
  • Cation Transport Proteins
  • Iron-Binding Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1
  • solute carrier family 11- (proton-coupled divalent metal ion transporters), member 2