Objectives: Our aim was to determine the late fate of intraaortic spring coil loops after embolization of aortopulmonary vessels.
Background: In some aortopulmonary collateral vessels and patent ductus arteriosi, the narrowest segment is close to the aorta; coils used to close such vessels will "straddle" the lesion, allowing one or more coil loops to protrude into the aortic lumen. The consequences of this procedure are unknown.
Methods: We reviewed the cineangiograms of all patients who had at least one aortopulmonary collateral vessel or patent ductus arteriosus closure between January 1, 1988 and August 31, 1993. From this group, 53 patients had multiple-plane angiographic evidence of intraaortic coil loops. All subsequent cineangiograms were reviewed to determine coil position or movement and evidence of recanalization or endothelial coverage of the coil loop. We also reviewed each hospital record or communicated directly with referring physicians to identify any subsequent complications such as emboli or endocarditis.
Results: Of the 53 patients with intraaortic coil loops, 49 patients had closure of one or more aortopulmonary collateral vessels (59 vessels), and 4 had closure of a patient ductus arteriosus (4 vessels). Patient follow-up ranged from 1 day to 66 months (median 20 months); follow-up was not available in 6 patients. Five of the 53 patients (9.3%; 95% confidence limits [CL] 3.1% to 20.7%) died at operation or of end-stage heart failure. Patients with late angiography had no residual flow in 31 of 35 aortopulmonary collateral vessels (88.6%; 95% CL 73.3% to 96.8%), and 0.5 mm separated the coil and aortic contrast column in all 12 coils with adequate angiography, suggesting endothelial coverage of the intraaortic coil loop. No episodes of stroke, embolic events, endocarditis or coil migration were reported.
Conclusions: Although coil occlusion of aortopulmonary collateral vessels or patent ductus arteriosi may produce intraaortic coil loops, endothelialization appears routine. No late complications associated with intraaortic coil loops were observed.