Early intervention within a primary health-care setting for problems with ATOD use includes screening, assessment, and referral services, and cognitive and behavioral brief interventions. All health-care providers who care for adolescents should possess the basic skills to communicate effectively with young patients and with parents about their concerns about ATOD use problems, should be able to identify appropriate substance-abuse services in their communities, and should be able to determine the appropriate referral options for a given adolescent patients. Some difficulties will be encountered with the introduction of behavioral technologies into medical practice. As such, more research is needed to determine the most effective approach to incorporate brief interventions into the health-care setting. Health-care providers should incorporate the principles of effective patient-provider communication and the concepts of behavior-changing strategies into their daily practices.