The scientific literature concerning occupational factors associated with scleroderma consists mostly of case report type studies. We therefore undertook a case-control study in the Province of Trento using as data source the Hospital Records System. The annual rate of scleroderma incidence in the period considered (1976-1991) was 5.8 per million in females and 1.5 per million in males. A statistically significant association was observed (OR = 9.28, p = 0.039) in the population under study for occupational exposure to solvents. Also, an excess risk was observed in male subjects exposed to silica dust, even though the simultaneous exposure to other risk factors, such as hand-arm vibrations, makes it difficult to establish the specific contribution of silica dust exposure.