Background: Perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, present in 60% of patients with ulcerative colitis, may be a marker for a genetically distinct subset of patients who develop chronic pouchitis after undergoing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. The frequency of these antibodies in chronic pouchitis was determined.
Methods: Four groups were studied: patients who underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for colitis with and without chronic pouchitis, familial polyposis without pouchitis and ileostomy for colitis. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody levels and titers were detected by ELISA, and positive results were confirmed by perinuclear staining with indirect immunofluorescence.
Results: The frequency of perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in chronic pouchitis (100%) was significantly greater than in colitis (50%) or familial polyposis (0%) without pouchitis and colitis with an ileostomy (70%); p = 0.00, 0.00, and 0.01, respectively.
Conclusions: The finding that perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies occur more frequently in patients with chronic pouchitis raises the possibility that this antibody may mark a genetically distinct subset of ulcerative colitis patients. Further studies are needed to determine whether the presence of this antibody before ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is predictive for later development of chronic pouchitis.