The incidence of head trauma (ICD9 850-854) among children in the Reykjavík area, aged 0-14 years, was studied over a 5-year period, 1987-1991, using hospital records. On average, 72 children with head trauma were admitted to hospital each year, indicating an annual incidence of 1.70 per 1000 population. Fourteen percent of children admitted to hospital with head trauma suffered the more severe forms of brain injury (ICD9 851-854) (annual incidence of 0.28 per 1000). Seven children died from brain injury, indicating an annual death rate of 0.03 per 1000. Falls were the most common cause of head trauma (62%), followed by traffic accidents (19%). On average, one to two severely brain-injured children received rehabilitation each year.