Recent advances in the physiology and genetics of amino acid-producing bacteria

Crit Rev Biotechnol. 1995;15(1):73-103. doi: 10.3109/07388559509150532.


Corynebacterium glutamicum and its close relatives, C. flavum and C. lactofermentum, have been used for over 3 decades in the industrial production of amino acids by fermentation. Since 1984, several research groups have started programs to develop metabolic engineering principles for amino acid-producing Corynebacterium strains. Initially, the programs concentrated on the isolation of genes encoding (deregulated) biosynthetic enzymes and the development of general molecular biology tools such as cloning vectors and DNA transfer methods. With most of the genes and tools now available, recombinant DNA technology can be applied in strain improvement. To accomplish these improvements, it is critical and advantageous to understand the mechanisms of gene expression and regulation as well as the biochemistry and physiology of the species being engineered. This review explores the advances made in the understanding and application of amino acid-producing bacteria in the early 1990s.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acids / biosynthesis*
  • Amino Acids / genetics
  • Amino Acids / metabolism
  • Base Sequence
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Corynebacterium / enzymology
  • Corynebacterium / genetics*
  • Corynebacterium / metabolism
  • Corynebacterium / physiology
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • DNA, Bacterial / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial / genetics*
  • Genes, Bacterial
  • Genetic Engineering
  • Glutamic Acid / biosynthesis
  • Glutamic Acid / genetics
  • Isoleucine / biosynthesis
  • Isoleucine / genetics
  • Lysine / biosynthesis
  • Lysine / genetics
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Threonine / biosynthesis
  • Threonine / genetics


  • Amino Acids
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • Isoleucine
  • Threonine
  • Glutamic Acid
  • Lysine