Hormone induces binding of receptors and transcription factors to a rearranged nucleosome on the MMTV promoter in vivo

EMBO J. 1995 Apr 18;14(8):1737-51.


Hormonal induction of the mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV) promoter is mediated by interactions between hormone receptors and other transcription factors bound to a complex array of sites. Previous results suggested that access to these sites is modulated by their precise organization into a positioned regulatory nucleosome. Using genomic footprinting, we show that MMTV promoter DNA is rotationally phased in intact cells containing either episomal or chromosomally integrated proviral fragments. Prior to induction there is no evidence for factors bound to the promoter. Following progesterone induction of cells with high levels of receptor, genomic footprinting detects simultaneous protection over the binding sites for hormone receptors, NF-I and the octamer binding proteins. Glucocorticoid or progestin induction leads to a characteristic chromatin remodelling that is independent of ongoing transcription. The centre of the regulatory nucleosome becomes more accessible to DNase I and restriction enzymes, but the limits of the nucleosome are unchanged and the 145 bp core region remains protected against micrococcal nuclease digestion. Thus, the nucleosome covering the MMTV promoter is neither removed nor shifted upon hormone induction, and all relevant transcription factors bind to the surface of the rearranged nucleosome. Since these factors cannot bind simultaneously to free DNA, maintainance of the nucleosome may be required for binding of factors to contiguous sites.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Binding Sites / genetics
  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chromatin / genetics
  • Chromatin / ultrastructure
  • DNA, Viral / metabolism*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Host Cell Factor C1
  • Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse / genetics*
  • Mice
  • Models, Genetic
  • Models, Molecular
  • Molecular Conformation
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • NFI Transcription Factors
  • Nucleosomes / genetics
  • Nucleosomes / metabolism*
  • Octamer Transcription Factor-1
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics*
  • Protein Binding
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Glucocorticoid / metabolism
  • Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins
  • Chromatin
  • DNA, Viral
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Hcfc1 protein, mouse
  • Host Cell Factor C1
  • NFI Transcription Factors
  • Nucleosomes
  • Octamer Transcription Factor-1
  • Pou2f1 protein, mouse
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Receptors, Glucocorticoid
  • Receptors, Progesterone
  • Transcription Factors