Constraints on transcriptional activator function contribute to transcriptional quiescence during early Xenopus embryogenesis

EMBO J. 1995 Apr 18;14(8):1752-65.


We have examined the cause of transcriptional quiescence prior to the mid-blastula transition (MBT) in Xenopus laevis. We have found distinct requirements for transcription of class II and class III genes. An artificial increase of the amount of DNA present within the embryo over that found at the MBT allows precocious transcription of tRNA genes, but not of the adenovirus E4 or human cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoters. Thus titration of an inhibitor by exogenous DNA determines class III but not class II gene activation. We demonstrate that the action of the inhibitor depends on the association of core histones with DNA. The addition of exogenous TBP, together with an increase in the amount of DNA within the embryo, allows significant basal transcription of class II genes prior to the MBT, whereas it does not increase transcription of tRNA genes. To examine the activation of transcription above basal levels, we used a defined minimal promoter containing five Gal4 binding sites and the activator Gal4-VP16. Precocious transcriptional activation is directed by Gal4-VP16 prior to the MBT, demonstrating that a functional transcriptional machinery exists at this early developmental stage. Furthermore, since this activation can occur in the absence of exogenous TBP or chromatin titration, a transcription factor that can penetrate chromatin is sufficient for recruitment of this machinery to a promoter. Our results support the hypothesis that the temporal regulation of transcription during early embryogenesis in Xenopus reflects not only a titration of inhibitors by DNA, but also a deficiency in the activity of transcriptional activators prior to the MBT.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adenovirus E4 Proteins / genetics
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Blastocyst / physiology
  • Cell Cycle / genetics
  • Chromatin / genetics*
  • Cytomegalovirus / genetics
  • Fungal Proteins / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Microinjections
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • RNA, Transfer / genetics
  • Trans-Activators / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Transcription, Genetic*
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Xenopus / embryology*
  • Xenopus / genetics


  • Adenovirus E4 Proteins
  • Chromatin
  • Fungal Proteins
  • Gal-VP16
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transcription Factors
  • RNA, Transfer