The present study evaluated the effectiveness of interpersonal problem-solving skills training (IPSST) for the treatment of self-poisoning patients. Thirty-nine self-poisoning patients were assigned randomly either to IPSST or to a control treatment condition (a brief problem-oriented approach). Both conditions were equally effective in reducing the number of presenting problems and in reducing hopelessness levels. However, the IPSST condition was significantly more effective than the control condition as determined by other outcome measures (measures of interpersonal cognitive problem solving, self-rated personal problem-solving ability, perceived ability to cope with ongoing problems, and self-perception). Follow-up studies showed maintenance of IPSST treatment gains at 6 months and a greater reduction of repetition of self-poisoning in the IPSST group at 1 year posttreatment.