Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peptide YY (PYY) are structurally related peptides that share at least two distinct receptors denoted Y1 and Y2. The Y1 receptor has previously been cloned in man, rat and mouse. We describe here the cloning and sequence of a Xenopus laevis Y1 receptor that shares 81% amino acid sequence identity with the human receptor in the region spanning transmembrane (TM) regions I to VII. The extracellular amino-terminal part, TM IV and the second extracellular loop contain several replacements suggesting that these portions have no or limited direct interactions with the peptide ligands. The intracellular regions including the carboxy-terminal tail are nearly identical between Xenopus and mammals, suggesting strong structural constraints on the portions that may interact with G proteins.