Bone marrow transplantation was performed on an 8-month-old boy who was diagnosed as having fucosidosis following the diagnosis of the disease in his older brother. Although he was asymptomatic and his development was normal, abnomalities were found on an MRI scan prior to transplant. In the absence of a suitable related donor, an unrelated volunteer donor was used. Conditioning for the transplant consisted of busulphan and cyclophosphamide. Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis consisted of in vitro T cell-depletion of the bone marrow and in vivo administration of cyclosporin. The post-transplant period was complicated by moderately severe graft-versus-host disease. Engraftment was documented by the presence of donor levels of alpha-fucosidase, donor blood group and tissue type (difference in the DQ antigen), and chromosomal polymorphism pattern of donor origin. Eighteen months after transplant, there is evidence of mild neurodevelopmental delay. By contrast, his elder sibling showed far greater developmental delay at the same age. The patient's MRI scan shows improvement. We believe this to be the first case of human fucosidosis treated by bone marrow transplantation.