Old phage, new insights: two recently recognized mechanisms of transcriptional regulation in bacteriophage T4 development

FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1995 Apr 15;128(1):1-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1995.tb07491.x.


The regulation of bacteriophage T4 middle and late gene expression involves previously unrecognized mechanisms. Middle transcription requires a DNA-binding transcriptional activator and a sigma 70-binding co-activator. The coupling of late transcription to DNA replication is effected by a DNA-tracking protein that is loaded onto DNA by an assembly factor at enhancer-like entry sites. Late transcription also requires an RNA polymerase core-binding co-activator. The co-activators of T4 middle and late transcription share the property of depressing unactivated, basal transcription.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacteriophage T4 / genetics*
  • Bacteriophage T4 / physiology
  • Base Sequence
  • DNA Replication
  • DNA, Viral / physiology
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Viral*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / physiology*
  • Transcription, Genetic / genetics
  • Transcription, Genetic / physiology*


  • DNA, Viral