Trabeculectomy outcome in pseudophakic glaucoma patients treated with mitomycin C (MMC) or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was analyzed retrospectively in 46 cases (46 eyes). Thirty patients received intraoperative MMC; 16, 5-FU. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of preoperative data (demographics, number of previous filtering procedures, visual acuity, and intraocular pressure [IOP]). After a mean follow up of 13.4 +/- 8.1 and 11.5 +/- 5.8 months for the 5-FU and MMC groups, respectively, 12 5-FU eyes (75%) and 21 MMC eyes (70%) were deemed at least qualified successes (IOP < or = 21 mm Hg with or without antiglaucoma medications). Six (37.5%) of the 5-FU eyes and 13 (43.3%) of the MMC eyes were complete successes (IOP < or = 21 mm Hg without antiglaucoma medications). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of duration of follow up, number of qualified successes, and number of complete successes (P = .35, .9, and .7, respectively). Nor were there any significant differences in the mean final IOPs and visual acuities. Excluding transient corneal effects associated with 5-FU therapy, there were no significant differences in the frequency of postoperative complications. These results suggest that 5-FU and MMC antiproliferative therapy are associated with similar short-term success rates and postoperative complications.