Complete sequence of the citrus tristeza virus RNA genome

Virology. 1995 Apr 20;208(2):511-20. doi: 10.1006/viro.1995.1182.


The sequence of the entire genome of citrus tristeza virus (CTV), Florida isolate T36, was completed. The 19,296-nt CTV genome encodes 12 open reading frames (ORFs) potentially coding for at least 17 protein products. The 5'-proximal ORF 1a starts at nucleotide 108 and encodes a large polyprotein with calculated MW of 349 kDa containing domains characteristic of (from 5' to 3') two papain-like proteases (P-PRO), a methyltransferase (MT), and a helicase (HEL). Alignment of the putative P-PRO sequences of CTV with the related proteases of beet yellows closterovirus (BYV) and potyviruses allowed the prediction of catalytic cysteine and histidine residues as well as two cleavage sites, namely Val-Gly/Gly for the 5' proximal P-PRO domain and Met-Gly/Gly for the 5' distal P-PRO domain. The autoproteolytic cleavage of the polyprotein at these sites would release two N-terminal leader proteins of 54 and 55 kDa, respectively, and a 240-kDa C-terminal fragment containing MT and HEL domains. The apparent duplication of the leader domain distinguishes CTV from BYV and accounts for most of the size increase in the ORF 1a product of CTV. The downstream ORF 1b encodes a 57-kDa putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which is probably expressed via a +1 ribosomal frameshift. Sequence analysis of the frameshift region suggests that this +1 frameshift probably occurs at a rare arginine codon CGG and that elements of the RNA secondary structure are unlikely to be involved in this process. The complete polyprotein resulting from this frameshift event has a calculated MW of 401 kDa and after cleavage of the two N-terminal leaders would yield a 292-kDa protein containing the MT, HEL, and RdRp domains. Phylogenetic analysis of the three replication-associated domains, MT, HEL, and RdRp, indicates that CTV and BYV form a separate closterovirus lineage within the alpha-like supergroup of positive-strand RNA viruses. Two gene blocks or modules can be easily identified in the CTV genome. The first includes the replicative MT, HEL, and RdRp genes and is conserved throughout the entire alpha-like superfamily. The second block consists of five ORFs, 3 to 7, conserved among closteroviruses, including genes for the CTV homolog of HSP70 proteins and a duplicate of the coat protein gene. The 3'-terminal ORFs 8 to 11 encode a putative RNA-binding protein (ORF 11), and three proteins with unknown functions; this gene array is poorly conserved among closteroviruses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Base Sequence
  • Citrus / virology*
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Closterovirus / genetics*
  • Genome, Viral*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Open Reading Frames / genetics
  • RNA, Viral / genetics
  • Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid / genetics
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Viral Proteins / genetics


  • RNA, Viral
  • Viral Proteins

Associated data

  • GENBANK/U16304