Objective: To describe the clinical features of vasoproliferative tumors of the ocular fundus and to propose a comprehensive classification of these tumors.
Methods: A retrospective review of all cases that were diagnosed as acquired retinal hemangioma or vasoproliferative retinal tumor was conducted on the Ocular Oncology Service at Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa.
Results: There were 129 vasoproliferative tumors in 113 eyes of 103 patients. The tumors were classified as idiopathic in 84 eyes (74%) and secondary to preexisting ocular disease in 29 (26%). Subclassification into solitary (88 eyes), multiple (17 eyes), and diffuse (eight eyes) involvement was made. Of the 84 eyes with idiopathic tumors, 73 (87%) had solitary tumors, five (6%) had multiple tumors, and six (7%) had diffuse tumors. The lesion was located in the inferior, inferotemporal, or temporal region of the fundus in 78% and developed within 6 mm of the ora serrata retinae in 88%. Associated vitreoretinal findings included intraretinal exudation (82%), secondary exudative retinal detachment (48%), vitreous cells (46%), vitreous hemorrhage (21%), preretinal macular fibrosis (31%), and macular edema (18%). Of the 29 eyes with secondary tumors, the tumor was solitary in 15 (52%), multiple in 12 (41%), and diffuse in two (7%). The most common preexisting ocular disease included intermediate uveitis (pars planitis) in eight eyes (28%), retinitis pigmentosa in six (21%), toxoplasmic retinitis in two (7%), toxocariasis in two (7%), retinochoroidal coloboma in two (7%), and traumatic chorioretinopathy in two (7%). Retinal pigment epithelial hyperplasia was a prominent feature that was adjacent to 58% of the secondary tumors. Overall, management of the 129 tumors consisted of observation in 63 (49%), cryotherapy in 54 (42%), laser photocoagulation in seven (5%), plaque radiotherapy in three (2%), and other modes of treatment in two (2%).
Conclusions: Vasoproliferative retinal tumors can be idiopathic, or they can develop secondary to congenital, inflammatory, vascular, traumatic, dystrophic, and degenerative ocular diseases. They can produce a variety of complications. Awareness and recognition of these tumors and differentiation from other retinal vascular tumors are important.