The effects of 5, 10, and 20% dietary xylitol supplementations on the resorption of bone were studied. The resorption was measured by the urinary excretion of [3H] radioactivity from [3H]tetracycline-prelabeled rats. The 10 and 20% oral xylitol administrations caused a significant decrease in the excretion of [3H] as compared with the control group with no xylitol supplementation. The effect was detected as early as 2 days after the beginning of xylitol-feeding and was maintained throughout the experimental period of 31 days. The retarding effect on bone resorption was about 25% in the 10% xylitol group, about 40% in the 20% xylitol group, and undetectable in the 5% xylitol group. The amount of preserved [3H] radioactivity in the tibiae of the 10 and 20% xylitol groups after the experiment clearly exceeded the values of the control group. The mechanism of the retarded bone resorption caused by dietary xylitol still remains obscure, but an increased absorption of calcium may be involved. In conclusion, dietary xylitol supplementation in rats seems to retard the bone resorption in a dose-dependent way. The effect is achieved rapidly and is maintained at least over a period of 1 month xylitol feeding.