Effects of prostaglandin E2, cholera toxin and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP on lipopolysaccharide-induced gene expression of cytokines in human macrophages

Immunology. 1995 Mar;84(3):446-52.


Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) appears to regulate macrophage cytokine production through the stimulatory GTP-binding protein (Gs protein)-mediated cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent transmembrane signal transduction pathway. In this study, we used PGE2, cholera toxin (CT; a direct G alpha s protein stimulator) and 8-bromo-cAMP (a membrane permeable cAMP analogue) to stimulate this pathway, and investigated their influence on cytokine gene expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated human macrophages. The mRNA expression for interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), IL-1 beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6 and IL-8 were determined employing reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers. We demonstrated that PGE2, CT and 8-bromo-cAMP inhibited the LPS-induced gene activation of TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha, and had no effect on the gene activation of IL-1 beta and IL-8. Further, our data indicate that PGE2 suppressed the gene activation of IL-6 following LPS stimulation, but neither CT nor 8-bromo-cAMP had an effect. These data suggest that PGE2 alters LPS-stimulated gene activation of only some of the early macrophage cytokines, and does so either by a Gs transmembrane cAMP-dependent or an independent system.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate / pharmacology
  • Adult
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cholera Toxin / pharmacology
  • Cytokines / biosynthesis*
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Dinoprostone / pharmacology*
  • Gene Expression / drug effects
  • Gene Expression / immunology
  • Humans
  • Lipopolysaccharides / immunology
  • Macrophage Activation / genetics
  • Macrophage Activation / immunology
  • Macrophages / immunology*
  • Male
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects*


  • Cytokines
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • RNA, Messenger
  • 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate
  • Cholera Toxin
  • Dinoprostone