Weight gain after smoking cessation was studied in a naturalistic setting where (1) all smokers quit and (b) risk factors for postcessation weight gain were modified. Participants were 332 military recruits (227 men, 105 women), 86 of whom were smokers who quit during 6 weeks of basic training. Results showed no significant weight changes for smokers who quit. Pretest smoking rates and feat of weight gain were unrelated to changes in weight. Results suggest that an intensive program that limits access to alcohol and foods that are high in fat and that increases physical activity can attenuate weight gain after smoking cessation.