This study was designed to increase smoking cessation rates, quit attempts, and cutting down among low-income African Americans using brief clinician advice in conjunction with socioculturally appropriate self-help smoking cessation/relapse prevention materials. Physicians and nurses were instructed in the National Cancer Institute's smoking intervention at inservice sessions. Smokers interviewed in a Harlem, New York clinic waiting room were recontacted 7 months later by telephone or mail (77% response). Residents receiving the intervention reported a 21% cessation rate at follow-up. An additional 27% decreased cigarette intake by at least 50%. Those reporting follow-up abstinence were significantly more likely to designate a quit date at baseline. They were also more likely to be men, employed, and have a nonsmoking partner. Smokers who decreased their cigarette intake significantly were older, employed, less nicotine-dependent (eg, delayed their wake-up cigarette), and more likely to use project materials. Physician advice had a significant impact both on patients' cutting down at least 50% and patients' watching the project video. Designation of a quit date and using project materials had a significant impact on making serious quit attempts. Results corroborate large sample, randomized, controlled trials with noninner-city physicians. We conclude that clinician smoking advice for every patient is warranted.