Data from the National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities surveillance system were used to analyze occupational injury deaths of civilian 16- and 17-year-olds during 1980 through 1989. There were 670 deaths; the rate was 5.11 per 100,000 full-time equivalent workers. The leading causes of death were incidents involving motor vehicles and machines, electrocution, and homicide. Workers 16 and 17 years old appear to be at greater risk than adults for occupational death by electrocution, suffocation, drowning, poisoning, and natural and environmental factors. Improved enforcement of and compliance with federal child labor laws, evaluation of the appropriateness of currently permitted activities, and education are encouraged.