Ca2+ is known to induce the adhesion and collapse of phosphatidylserine (PS) bilayers into dehydrated multilamellar structures. The aim of this study was to examine how that interaction and the resultant structures might be modified by neutral lipid species. A combination of rapid mixing, x-ray diffraction, thin-layer chromatography, density gradient centrifugation, and freeze-fracture electron microscopy was used in conjunction with osmotic stress techniques to characterize the structures formed by the Ca(2+)-induced interaction of multilamellar liposomes and of large unilamellar vesicles. The results showed that dioleoylphosphatidylcholine and dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine at concentrations of up to approximately 30 mol % are accommodated in a single dehydrated multilamellar structure. Similar results were obtained using mixed PS species isolated from bovine brain. Principally, the data indicate that neutral lipid is both dehydrated during the rapid collapse process of Ca(PS)2 formation and accommodated within this dehydrated structure. The large energies available on formation of the Ca(PS)2 bilayers contribute to the dehydration of neighboring neutral lipids that likely form continuous bilayers with them. Higher concentrations of these neutral lipids modify Ca(2+)-induced bilayer interactions, leading to progressively weaker interactions, larger bilayer separations, and in some cases separation into two structures; phosphatidylethanolamine species favoring nonbilayer structures tended to promote such separation at lower concentrations than bilayer lipids.