The integral role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans in FGF signaling provides a potential means of regulating FGF activity. This regulation may be used by the cell, where the modification of heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans during their synthesis in the Golgi can produce cell type- and potentially ligand-specific sulfation sequences. The description of these sequences will not only provide information on how this regulation is achieved, perhaps lending insight into other heparan sulfate-ligand interactions, but may also discern sulfated mimetics that can be used to disrupt or alter FGF signaling. These mimetics may be useful in the treatment disrupt or alter FGF signaling. These mimetics may be useful in the treatment of disease, or in understanding how FGF signaling via discrete pathways within the cell leads to specific cellular responses, such as activation of mitogenic signaling pathways, calcium fluxes, and cellular differentiation.