On the origins and functions of the enzymes of the 4-chlorobenzoate to 4-hydroxybenzoate converting pathway

Biodegradation. 1994 Dec;5(3-4):259-76. doi: 10.1007/BF00696464.


This review examines the enzymes of 4-chlorobenzoate to 4-hydroxybenzoate converting pathway found in certain soil bacteria. This pathway consists of three enzymes: 4-chlorobenzoate: Coenzyme A ligase, 4-chlorobenzoyl-Coenzyme A dehalogenase and 4-hydroxybenzoyl-Coenzyme A thioesterase. Recent progress made in the cloning and expression of the pathway genes from assorted bacterial strains is described. Gene order and sequence found among these strains are compared to reveal independent enzyme recruitment strategies. Sequence alignments made between the Pseudomonas sp. strain CBS3 4-chlorobenzoate pathway enzymes and structurally related proteins contained within the protein sequence data banks suggest possible origins in preexisting beta-oxidation pathways. The purification and characterization of the physical and kinetic properties of the pathway enzymes are described. Where possible a comparison of these properties between like enzymes from different bacterial sources are made.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Biodegradation, Environmental
  • Chlorobenzoates / metabolism*
  • Coenzyme A Ligases / genetics
  • Coenzyme A Ligases / metabolism*
  • Hydrolases / genetics
  • Hydrolases / metabolism*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Parabens / metabolism*
  • Pseudomonas / enzymology*
  • Pseudomonas / genetics
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Thiolester Hydrolases / genetics
  • Thiolester Hydrolases / metabolism*


  • Chlorobenzoates
  • Parabens
  • Hydrolases
  • 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA hydrolase
  • Thiolester Hydrolases
  • 4-chlorobenzoyl coenzyme A dehalogenase
  • 4-halobenzoate-CoA ligase
  • Coenzyme A Ligases
  • 4-chlorobenzoic acid
  • 4-hydroxybenzoic acid