Dissimilatory metal reduction has the potential to be a helpful mechanism for both intrinsic and engineered bioremediation of contaminated environments. Dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction is an important intrinsic process for removing organic contaminants from aquifers contaminated with petroleum or landfill leachate. Stimulation of microbial Fe(III) reduction can enhance the degradation of organic contaminants in ground water. Dissimilatory reduction of uranium, selenium, chromium, technetium, and possibly other metals, can convert soluble metal species to insoluble forms that can readily be removed from contaminated waters or waste streams. Reduction of mercury can volatilize mercury from waters and soils. Despite its potential, there has as yet been limited applied research into the use of dissimilatory metal reduction as a bioremediation tool.