The central role of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the regulation of calcium balance is well established. By increasing the absorption of calcium in the intestine and the reabsorption of filtered calcium in the kidney tubule, the hormone maintains an appropriate calcium balance. The cellular mechanisms that underlie the increase in calcium transport in epithelial cells in response to 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 are beginning to be defined. These events include an increase in the movement of calcium across the apical membrane of the cell, an increase in the movement of calcium across the cell, and an increase in the extrusion of calcium at the basolateral portion of the cell. In this Prospects article, I will discuss the nature of the various processes and proteins involved in transcellular calcium movement, and I will attempt to highlight various future areas of research.