This study was designed to investigate the compound action potential (CAP) of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and to correlate this electrophysiologic signal to laryngeal biomechanics and phonatory function. Four adult mongrel canines were anesthetized. The RLN was isolated and stimulated, and recording electrodes were applied. The electromyographic (EMG) electrode was placed in the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle. The RLN CAP and the EMG of the TA muscle were recorded and compared to the stimulation intensity, subglottic pressure (Psub), and each other. The CAP peak-to-peak and EMG peak-to-peak amplitudes demonstrated a sigmoidal relation to stimulus intensity and a linear relation to Psub and to each other. On the basis of these findings, the RLN CAP appears to be a reliable physiologic measure of laryngeal function.