We report four cases of progressive thalamic atrophy following ipsilateral cerebral infarction in the territory of the middle cerebral artery in neonates, with prospective radiological and clinical follow-up. This type of atrophy appears within 6 months after the onset of cerebral infarction. In the short term, this atrophy has no action on sensory and memory function and/or on sensory evoked potentials. This atrophy is not the result of secondary ischemic neuronal damage. Judging from several other experimental studies, thalamic atrophy may primarily result from retrograde degeneration. It would be interesting to observe the consequences of this atrophy on sensory and memory function over a long period.