This communication reports 7 Ethiopian visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The clinical and laboratory findings in 6 patients did not differ from classical VL. All patients had highly elevated anti-leishmanial antibody titres, determined by immunoglobulin G-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; they most probably acquired the Leishmania infection before HIV. Amastigotes were identified in the splenic aspirates of 6 patients and in the lymph node aspirate of the 2 patients whose lymph nodes were examined. The CD4:CD8 lymphocyte ratio was depressed in those patients whose ratio was determined. Most patients showed some initial response to pentavalent antimonial therapy.