Neuroborreliosis, an infection of the nervous system caused by spirochetes of the genus Borrelia, has achieved worldwide attention in the last decade as part of the clinical spectrum of Lyme disease. This disorder, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, has increased in incidence to become the most frequent arthropod-borne infection in North America and Europe. As a result of this rapid rise in incidence and of its protean neurological manifestations, this disease has created an important challenge to modern neurology. The diverse manifestations of neuroborreliosis require that it be included in the differential diagnosis of many neurological disorders. This review takes a chronological approach to clinical neuroborreliosis to summarize its most important aspects. The limitations as well as the benefits of laboratory diagnosis are also considered, with the aim of providing assistance in this area. Recent advances in neuroimmunology regarding the pathogenesis of neuroborreliosis that may elucidate its protean clinical spectrum are summarized.