Mutations in the APC gene are responsible for various familial and sporadic colorectal cancers. Min mice carry a dominant mutation in the homolog of the Apc gene and develop multiple adenomas throughout their small and large intestine. Quantitative trait loci studies have identified a locus, Mom1, which maps to the distal region of chromosome 4, that dramatically modifies Min-induced tumor number. We report here the identification of a candidate gene for Mom1. The gene for secretory type II phospholipase A2 (Pla2s) maps to the same region that contains Mom1 and displays 100% concordance between allele type and tumor susceptibility. Expression and sequence analysis revealed that Mom1 susceptible strains are most likely null for Pla2s activity. Our results indicate that Pla2s acts as a novel gene that modifies polyp number by altering the cellular microenvironment within the intestinal crypt.