We assessed the effect of CS-045, a new hypoglycemic agent, on B-cell function in partially pancreatectomized rats. At the age of 4 weeks, male Wistar rats were subjected to 90% pancreatectomy (Px). For 2 weeks starting at 6 weeks after surgery the Px rats were treated with CS-045 (CS rats) mixed with chow pellets in a proportion of 0.2% (w/w). To compare the efficacy of CS-045 with that of insulin therapy, an osmotic pump was implanted to release insulin (1.2 units/day) into the intraperitoneal cavity of the Px rats (Is rats). Plasma glucose levels in the CS and Is rats were significantly lower than in the control Px rats; however, no marked improvement in plasma glucose or insulin levels was observed in glucose tolerance test (2 g/kg, i.p.) in the CS rats. Insulin secretion by the isolated perfused pancreas in response to 16.7 mM glucose showed a biphasic pattern, but was slightly reduced in the Px and CS rats compared with the Is rats. Insulin secretion induced by 19 mM arginine was unaffected by the treatment. The insulin content of the CS rats was significantly greater than in the Px and Is rats. Histological observations suggested regranulation of the pancreatic islets of the CS rats. B-cell areas within the islet were restored to normal levels in the Cs and Is rats. These findings indicate that the hypoglycemic effect of CS-045, which is not mediated by insulin secretion from the residual pancreas, prevents destruction of the islet.