Many Salmonella typhimurium genes are required for bacterial entry into host cells. P22 transduction analysis has localized several invasion loci near minute 59 on the S. typhimurium chromosome. To further characterize the 59-60 min chromosomal region, we determined the physical and genetic map of 85 kb of S. typhimurium DNA between srl and cysC. It was previously shown that some of the invasion genes from this region are not present in Escherichia coli K-12. We examined whether other S. typhimurium genes on the 85 kb of DNA were similarly absent from E. coli. We found that a contiguous 40 kb fragment of the S. typhimurium chromosome which encodes invasion genes is absent from the corresponding region of the E. coli K-12 chromosome and may represent a 'pathogenicity island'. We speculate that acquisition of the 40 kb region must have significantly advanced the evolution of Salmonella as a pathogen.