Arterial hypertension is frequently associated with serum lipid abnormalities. Lipid metabolism can also be affected by antihypertensive treatment, possibly via an interference with lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. The aims of this study were to investigate the metabolic and hemodynamic factors that can interfere with plasma postheparin LPL activity in a sample of 13 patients with mild, uncomplicated arterial hypertension. The effects of vasodilator administration (prazosin and hydralazine) alone or in combination with a beta-blocker (propranolol) were also studied. A direct correlation between serum insulin levels and LPL activity was found during placebo treatment. This was confirmed by multiple regression analysis, which also showed a positive correlation of LPL activity with aortic flow velocity and plasma adrenaline (F significance = 0.0007, R2 = .905). Serum insulin was also directly correlated with cholesterol in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and in the HDL2 subfraction. A significant decrease in LPL activity was observed during the addition of propranolol to vasodilators as compared with vasodilators alone. A positive correlation was found between LPL and adrenaline changes induced by the combined treatment. These data suggest that LPL may play a role in the pathophysiologic connections between insulin action, the adrenergic nervous system (ANS), and lipid metabolism.