Diagnostic criteria for Graves' ophthalmopathy

Am J Ophthalmol. 1995 Jun;119(6):792-5. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9394(14)72787-4.


Purpose: To propose criteria for the diagnosis of Graves' ophthalmopathy.

Methods: We reviewed the evolution of nomenclature describing Graves' ophthalmopathy. and the diagnostic schema used in key published reports.

Results: A laboratory test or clinical finding pathognomonic for Graves' ophthalmopathy currently is not available or recognized. Extant diagnostic criteria may exclude appropriate cases.

Conclusions: Graves' ophthalmopathy is considered to be present if eyelid retraction occurs in association with objective evidence of thyroid dysfunction or abnormal regulation, exophthalmos, optic nerve dysfunction, or extraocular muscle involvement. The ophthalmic signs may be unilateral or bilateral, and confounding causes must be excluded. If eyelid retraction is absent, then Graves' ophthalmopathy may be diagnosed only if exophthalmos, optic nerve involvement, or restrictive extraocular myopathy is associated with thyroid dysfunction or abnormal regulation and if no other cause for the ophthalmic feature is apparent.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Eye Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Eyelids / pathology
  • Graves Disease / diagnosis*
  • Humans
  • Thyroid Gland / pathology