Data from the 1993 Matriculating Student Questionnaire (MSQ) and the 1994 Medical School Graduation Questionnaire (GQ) of the Association of American Medical Colleges were investigated for differences in responses between men and women. Notable differences were discovered, particularly with regard to career plans and experiences during medical school. Findings from the GQ include that a higher proportion of women rated curricular coverage of numerous subjects inadequate and that women students more frequently reported mistreatment during medical school. Women were also more likely than men to work in clinics serving the indigent and to complete a primary care clerkship. Over 30% of the 1994 women seniors, compared with 18% of the men, planned to pursue generalist careers. The authors discuss the gender-associated differences, with reference to previous studies, and conclude that medical educators should ensure that women have access to the same skill-development opportunities that men do and to a humane learning environment. Moreover, educators should examine what adaptations can encourage students of both genders to develop an ethic of "social responsibility."