Calbindin D-28K immunoreactivity of human cone cells varies with retinal position

Vis Neurosci. 1995 Mar-Apr;12(2):301-7. doi: 10.1017/s0952523800007987.


Calbindin D-28K is a calcium-binding protein found in the cone but not rod photoreceptor cells in the retinas of a variety of species. Recent studies of the monkey retina indicated that calbindin D-28K may be expressed preferentially in non-foveal regions of the retina. In the current studies of human retinas, immunohistochemical experiments demonstrated that calbindin D-28K is reduced or absent in the fovea and parafovea, but prevalent in the perifovea and periphery. These findings were supported by the quantification of calbindin D-28K in 1-mm trephine punches obtained from different regions of the human retina. The specificity of the anti-calbindin D-28K antibodies used in these studies was confirmed by Western blot analysis using purified calbindin D-28K. The protein was purified from retinal tissue and its identity confirmed by partial amino-acid sequence analysis. The expression of calbindin D-28K did not correlate with the spectral properties of the cones, rather to their position in the retina. The study of spatially expressed genes, like the one encoding calbindin D-28K, may help explain the patterns of retinal degeneration seen in some human cone-rod dystrophies.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Antibody Specificity
  • Blotting, Western
  • Calbindins
  • Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  • Female
  • Fluorescent Antibody Technique
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / chemistry
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / isolation & purification
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • Peptide Fragments / chemistry
  • Retina / chemistry
  • Retina / metabolism*
  • Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells / metabolism*
  • Retinal Pigments / metabolism
  • S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / chemistry
  • S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / isolation & purification
  • S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / metabolism*


  • Calbindins
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Retinal Pigments
  • S100 Calcium Binding Protein G