There is increasing evidence that neutrophins and their receptors play an important role in regulating development of both the central and the peripheral nervous systems. Human TRK-A (NTRK1) and TRK-C (NTRK3) have been cloned and sequenced, but only a truncated form of human TRK-B has been published. Therefore, we isolated complementary DNAs spanning the entire coding region of both human full-length and truncated forms of TRK-B from human brain cDNA libraries. Human full-length TRK-B codes for a protein of 822 amino acid residues. The putative mature peptide sequence is 49% homologous to human TRK-A and 55% to full-length human TRK-C, with 40% amino acid identify among TRK-A, -B, and -C. Nine of 13 cysteine residues, 4 of 12N-glycosylation sites in the extracellular domain, and 10 of 13 tyrosine residues in the intracellular domain are conserved among human TRK-A, -B, and -C. There is a cluster of 10 serine residues in the juxtamembrane region of TRK-B that is absent in TRK-A. Two major sizes of TRK-B transcripts were expressed in human brain. Northern blot analysis using probes specific for the extracellular or the tyrosine kinase domain revealed that the 9.5-kb band encodes the full-length TRK-B mRNA and the 8.0-kb band encodes the truncated form of TRK-B mRNA. By fluorescence in situ hybridization and somatic cell hybrid mapping, the human TRK-B gene was localized to chromosome 9q22.1.