Risks of 2nd primary cancer were assessed in all patients with cutaneous melanoma (12,460) and all patients with ocular melanoma (2,018) incident in Denmark from 1943 to 1989 and followed for totals of 88,667 person-years and 16,045 person-years, respectively. After cutaneous melanoma, 972 2nd cancers occurred. The risk of non-melanoma skin cancer was significantly raised in each sex. Risk of all non-skin cancers was not raised for all ages but was significantly increased for patients with the primary melanoma incident at ages under 50 years (standardised incidence ratio [SIR], i.e., ratio of observed to expected cancer incidence, multiplied by 100 = 117; 95% confidence interval [CI] 101-134). There were significantly increased risks of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in males and both sexes combined, brain and nervous system cancers in females and both sexes combined and oropharyngeal cancer in both sexes combined. Risk of pancreatic cancer was not raised, suggesting that cutaneous melanoma patients generally do not share the diathesis for this malignancy which has been observed in certain families with atypical naevi and melanoma. There was no relation of 2nd primary cancer risks to duration since the first primary and no indication of any appreciable treatment-related risk. After ocular melanoma, 216 2nd cancers occurred. There was a significantly increased risk of 2nd cancer overall in males but not females and a significantly increased risk of liver cancer in each sex. Risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) was not raised, which suggests that the aetiology of ocular melanoma is not mainly dependent on UV exposure, at least of the type causing NMSC.