Uptake of L-glutamate into rat brain synaptic vesicles: effect of inhibitors that bind specifically to the glutamate transporter

J Neurochem. 1995 Jul;65(1):96-103. doi: 10.1046/j.1471-4159.1995.65010096.x.


In this study we have described a series of new and potent inhibitors of the vesicular uptake of glutamate. The two most efficient inhibitors were the dyes Evans blue and Chicago Skye Blue 6B, which are structurally related to glutamate and were competitive inhibitors in the nanomolar range. The anion channel blocker 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (SITS) and the diuretics furosemide and bumetanide are inhibitors of chloride transport in other organs but were competitive inhibitors of glutamate and noncompetitive with respect to chloride ions. Evans blue, Chicago Skye Blue 6B, SITS, furosemide, and bumetanide are all large organic acids with two centers of negative charge and an electron-donating group at close vicinity of the negative charge at physiological pH. The inhibition of the glutamate uptake with these inhibitors was noncompetitive with respect to Cl-. The inhibitors, therefore, probably interact directly with the glutamate carrier. Bafilomycin A1, which is a specific vacuolar ATPase inhibitor, was used as a control and inhibited the vesicular dopamine, glutamate, and GABA uptake to the same extent. None of the inhibitors had any effect on the plasma membrane carrier, which is therefore clearly different from the vesicular carrier.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / metabolism*
  • Amino Acid Transport System X-AG
  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Azo Compounds / pharmacology
  • Binding, Competitive
  • Biological Transport / drug effects
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Evans Blue / pharmacology
  • Glutamic Acid / pharmacokinetics*
  • Macrolides*
  • Male
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Synaptic Vesicles / metabolism*
  • Trypan Blue
  • gamma-Aminobutyric Acid / pharmacokinetics


  • ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters
  • Amino Acid Transport System X-AG
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Azo Compounds
  • Macrolides
  • bafilomycin A
  • pontamine sky blue
  • Glutamic Acid
  • Evans Blue
  • gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
  • Trypan Blue