Physiologically based pharmacokinetic study on a cyclosporin derivative, SDZ IMM 125

J Pharmacokinet Biopharm. 1994 Oct;22(5):327-65. doi: 10.1007/BF02353860.


The immunosuppressant, SDZ IMM 125 (IMM), is a derivative of cyclosporin A (CyA). The disposition kinetics of IMM in plasma, blood cells, and various tissues of the rat was characterized by a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model; the model was then applied to predict the disposition kinetics in dog and human. Accumulation of IMM in blood cell is high (equilibrium blood cell/plasma ratio = 8), although the kinetics of drug transference between plasma and blood cell is moderately slow, taking approximately 10 min to reach equilibrium, implying a membrane-limited distribution into blood cells. A local PBPK model, assuming blood-flow limited distribution and tissue/blood partition coefficient (KP) data, failed to adequately describe the observed kinetics of distribution, which were slower than predicted. A membrane transport limitation is therefore needed to model dynamic tissue distribution data. Moreover, a slowly interacting intracellular pool was also necessary to adequately describe the kinetics of distribution in some organs. Three elimination pathways (metabolism, biliary secretion, and glomerular filtration) of IMM were assessed at steady state in vivo and characterized independently by the corresponding clearance terms. A whole-body PBPK model was developed according to these findings, which described closely the IMM concentration-time profiles in arterial blood as well as 14 organs/tissues of the rat after intravenous administration. The model was then scaled up to larger mammals by modifying physiological parameters, tissue distribution and elimination clearances; in vivo enzymatic activity was considered in the scale-up of metabolic clearance. The simulations agreed well with the experimental measurements in dog and human, despite the large interspecies difference in the metabolic clearance, which does not follow the usual allometric relationship. In addition, the nonlinear increase in maximum blood concentration and AUC with increasing dose, observed in healthy volunteers after intravenous administration, was accommodated quantitatively by incorporating the known saturation of specific binding of IMM to blood cells. Overall, the PBPK model provides a promising tool to quantitatively link preclinical and clinical data.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Cyclosporins / blood
  • Cyclosporins / pharmacokinetics*
  • Dogs
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / blood
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacokinetics*
  • Infusions, Intravenous
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Biological
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Species Specificity
  • Tissue Distribution


  • Cyclosporins
  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • SDZ IMM 125