We have investigated the influence of the functional insertion (I) and deletion (D) polymorphism in intron 16 of the gene for angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in a retrospective study of 100 patients with IgA nephropathy. There was no difference in genotype frequency compared with normal subjects. However, patients homozygous for the D allele tended to present at an earlier age (medians: DD, 33; ID, 34; II, 42 years) and to require renal replacement therapy at a younger age (medians 37, 42, and 48 years, respectively). The rate of progression was significantly worse in patients homozygous for the D allele. The DD genotype is associated with increased severity of disease in patients with IgA nephropathy.