The localization of the glutamate receptor channel delta 2 subunit was investigated by immunohistochemistry. The delta 2-immunoreactivity was observed exclusively in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex. The electron microscopic analysis showed that the delta 2 subunit was localized in the dendritic spines of the Purkinje cells. The immunopositive spines often formed synaptic contacts with parallel fiber varicosities. As for the Purkinje cells ectopically localized in the cerebellar nuclei and brain stem, the dendritic shafts and cell bodies were strongly labeled. These ectopic Purkinje cells also formed asymmetrical synapses at the delta 2-immunopositive dendritic spines. Considering the specific localization of the delta 2 subunit in the postsynaptic site of the Purkinje cells, the subunit is suggested to be involved in the excitatory synaptic transmission in the cells, as a component of the glutamate receptor channel.