Structural features of the uniporter/symporter/antiporter superfamily

Protein Sci. 1995 Mar;4(3):534-7. doi: 10.1002/pro.5560040319.


The uniporter/symporter/antiporter superfamily is an evolutionarily related group of solute transporters. For the entire superfamily, we have used a new predictive program to identify the transmembrane domains. These transmembrane domains were then analyzed with regard to their overall hydrophobicity and amphipathicity. In addition, the lengths of the hydrophilic loops connecting the transmembrane domains were calculated. These data, together with structural information in the literature, were collectively used to produce a general model for the three-dimensional arrangement of the transmembrane domains.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Antiporters / chemistry
  • Biological Evolution
  • Carrier Proteins / chemistry*
  • Carrier Proteins / classification
  • Escherichia coli Proteins*
  • Membrane Transport Proteins / chemistry
  • Models, Molecular
  • Monosaccharide Transport Proteins*
  • Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins / chemistry
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary*
  • Symporters*


  • Antiporters
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • LacY protein, E coli
  • Membrane Transport Proteins
  • Monosaccharide Transport Proteins
  • Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins
  • Symporters
  • lactose permease