This article presents the joint results of two Swedish case-control studies regarding occupational exposure and female papillary thyroid cancer. Questionnaires inquiring about lifetime occupations and specific occupational exposures were mailed to cases and controls, aged 20 to 70 years. Some 185 female papillary or mixed cancer cases and 426 female controls were included in the analysis. Increased risks were seen for women who had worked as a dentist/dental assistant, teacher, shoemaker, or warehouse worker. In addition, occupational contacts with undefined chemicals, x-rays, or video display terminals were indicated as risk factors.