Parenteral influenza vaccination induces a rapid systemic and local immune response

J Infect Dis. 1995 Jan;171(1):198-203. doi: 10.1093/infdis/171.1.198.


The kinetics of the local immune response in the upper respiratory tract to parenterally administered inactivated split trivalent influenza vaccine were examined in 19 healthy subjects. Influenza virus-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) could be detected as early as 2 days after vaccination in peripheral blood and tonsils, with a peak at approximately 1 week after vaccination and a decline to insignificant levels after 6 weeks. Circulating ASC produced IgG, IgA, and IgM, whereas ASC in tonsils produced mainly IgA and IgM. Influenza virus-specific antibodies were predominantly IgG and IgM in serum and IgA in oral fluid; they rose after 1 week and were elevated at 6 weeks. This may indicate a secretory involvement of the anti-influenza virus response in the upper respiratory tract. Parenteral influenza vaccination induced an immediate and significant immune response in both the upper respiratory tract and peripheral blood.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antibodies, Viral / biosynthesis*
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • Antibody-Producing Cells / immunology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin A / biosynthesis
  • Immunoglobulin A / blood
  • Immunoglobulin G / biosynthesis
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Immunoglobulin M / biosynthesis
  • Immunoglobulin M / blood
  • Influenza A virus / immunology*
  • Influenza B virus / immunology*
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Injections, Subcutaneous
  • Kinetics
  • Male
  • Palatine Tonsil / immunology
  • Saliva / immunology
  • Vaccination


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Immunoglobulin M
  • Influenza Vaccines