The kinetics of the local immune response in the upper respiratory tract to parenterally administered inactivated split trivalent influenza vaccine were examined in 19 healthy subjects. Influenza virus-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) could be detected as early as 2 days after vaccination in peripheral blood and tonsils, with a peak at approximately 1 week after vaccination and a decline to insignificant levels after 6 weeks. Circulating ASC produced IgG, IgA, and IgM, whereas ASC in tonsils produced mainly IgA and IgM. Influenza virus-specific antibodies were predominantly IgG and IgM in serum and IgA in oral fluid; they rose after 1 week and were elevated at 6 weeks. This may indicate a secretory involvement of the anti-influenza virus response in the upper respiratory tract. Parenteral influenza vaccination induced an immediate and significant immune response in both the upper respiratory tract and peripheral blood.