RNA derived from enriched reticulocytes of Rh-phenotyped donors was isolated, reversely transcribed into cDNA and amplified with Rh-specific primers by polymerase chain reaction. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the entire coding region of the Rh cDNAs was carried out. Four types of cDNAs were identified, tentatively designated as RhSCI, RhSCII, RhSCIII and RhSCIV. Comparison of RhSCII with RhSCI (identical to the previously reported RhIXb/30A cDNA), showed single base pair difference. Since RhSCI and RhSCII were found to be related to the presence of E or e antigen, respectively, the P226A amino acid polymorphism appears to be the genetic basis of the E/e polymorphism. RhSCIII was demonstrated to be a transcript derived from the RhD gene, with 35 amino acid substitutions as compared to RhSCI. RhSCIV was found to be present only in RhC-positive individuals, indicating that RhSCIV encodes a polypeptide carrying the C antigen. Six nucleotide changes, resulting in four amino acid substitutions W16C, L60I, N68S and P103S, were observed between RhSCII and RhSCIV, probably representing the C/c polymorphism.