We measured the intercondylar notch of the femur in female handball players from radiographs of 20 players with previous unilateral anterior cruciate ligament injury, and 26 controls without injury. The groups were comparable regarding age, height, weight and level of performance. Intercondylar fossa radiographs were obtained in a posteroanterior axial position. The anterior opening of the intercondylar notch was narrower in the healthy knee of the injured group compared to the controls. There was an increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury associated with decreasing notch opening: female handball players with 17 mm or less anterior notch width were 6 times more susceptible to anterior cruciate ligament injury compared to players with wider notch width.