Effects of menstrual phase on intake of nicotine, caffeine, and alcohol and nonprescribed drugs in women with late luteal phase dysphoric disorder

J Subst Abuse. 1994;6(2):235-43. doi: 10.1016/s0899-3289(94)90265-8.


To investigate the possibility that cigarette smoking and other drug use are affected by menstrual phase in smokers with Late Luteal Phase Dysphoric Disorder (LLPDD), we examined daily diaries rating menstrual symptomatology, smoking, alcohol and nonprescription drug use, and caffeine intake in nine female smokers meeting criteria for LLPDD. Menstrual symptomatology peaked during the premenstrual phase. Smoking, alcohol, and nonprescription drug intake were increased during menses; caffeine intake was unaffected by phase. No systematic intrasubject correlation between symptomatology and smoking was detected. It was concluded that in women with LLPDD, smoking and alcohol and nonprescription drug intake appear to vary as a function of menstrual phase. The lack of intrasubject correlations between symptomatology and intake, and the failure of peak intake to coincide with peak symptomatology, however, indicate that these effects cannot be explained simply as "self-medication" of acute episodes of dysphoric mood.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Alcohol Drinking / psychology*
  • Caffeine*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Illicit Drugs*
  • Luteal Phase / drug effects
  • Luteal Phase / psychology
  • Menstrual Cycle / drug effects
  • Menstrual Cycle / psychology*
  • Nicotine / administration & dosage
  • Premenstrual Syndrome / psychology*
  • Self Medication / psychology
  • Smoking / psychology*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / psychology*


  • Illicit Drugs
  • Caffeine
  • Nicotine